【予習】ASNS2631 Week4 Lecture【Preperation】

Tutorial discussion: 

1. “Housing the aristocracy was not just one of Heian-kyō’s functions, it was one of the primary reasons for establishing a permanent capital in the first place” (p. 3). Explain the implications of this sentence and, if possible, how it pertains to Emperor Kanmu’s centralizing policies.

-Unambiguous act of rebellion
-Tie aristocrats and emperor strongly

2. Identify and describe the status-specific elements of Heian-kyō’s urban plan and architecture.

-Enclosed collar-and-sash by mountains and rivers
-Adopting the Chinese capital model
-Mimic the majestic imperial cityscape of Chang'an and Luoyang
-Geometric grid plan

3. What caused the proliferation of shinden-style residences?

-Shinden-style palaces began to proliferate from about the late eighth century when members of the aristocracy started mimicking the forms of the Imperial Palace when building their own official urban residences.


【復習】CHNS2601 Week3 Lecture【Review】


  1. 饭馆
  2. 桌子
  3. 饺子
  4. 家常
  5. 豆腐
  6. 酸辣汤


  1. 好像
  2. 服务
  3. 点菜
  4. 卖完
  5. 上菜
  6. 刚卖完
  7. 一MW + object + 也/都 + 不/没
  8. 一点儿+ object + 也/都 + 不/没
  9. 除了,,,以外,还,,,
  10. 少/多 + verb




【予習】ASNS2631 Week3 Lecture【Preperation】

Tutorial discussion:

1. What is the relationship between Buddhism and the imperial family? What is the relationship between Buddhism and Shintō?

As the seat of the 'imperial state', the capital may have housed as many as 10,000 government officials, and as the central cathedral of a national Buddhism, the landscape was dotted with temples large and small.

The function of Buddhism as 'protector of the state'(p.332)

In Nara, it was Temmu's great-grandson Obito [1 (Emperor Shomu, r. 724- 749) who built the edifice of state-sponsored Buddhism, centered on the cult of Vairocana and of the emperor, in Todaiji.

→Buddhism was national religion for Imperial family.

Dokyo affair represented serious conflicts between Shinto legitimating principles and Buddhist principles.

→Conflict between Buddhism and Shintoism because emperor gave much more power to Buddhist  

The revulsion against Dokyo, and the reaction against Nara Buddhist institutions may be part of the reason for the move of the capital.

→Because of Buddhism become more powerful and started to involve in politics, emperor Kanmu didn't like to Buddhism involved to politics. Therefore, he have moved capital to Heiankyo平安京.

The devoutly Buddhist Shomu, who had declared himself 'the servant of the Three Treasures' of Buddhism, however, found himself trapped by conflicting desires. On the one hand he wished to abdicate and devote himself to the pursuit of religious progress by taking religious vows, but on the other he also wanted to preserve the monarchy in his own line

→It is complex that one side he follow Buddhism, but other side he want to control the politics by himself. Not by Buddhism.

2. How was imperial succession arranged in the Nara period? What were the

 the glory of the Nara period dominated by the Temmu line.

→The achievement of Tenmu is equally the achievement of Nara period.

the desire of the imperial house (Kammu) and the bureaucracy (nobility) to escape the baneful influence of the Nara-centered Buddhist church

→moved capital

3. What is the difference between a “court” and a “capital city”?

to phrase the question in different terms, was Heijo the 'first permanent capital', or merely the penultimate 'court'?

→These conclusions must be regarded as tentative, but however much the founding of Heijo in 710 may have been based on the expectation that it was to be a permanent capital

What would be the founding of Heijo?

  • population?
  • Enormous building?
  • Emperor?
  • Middle of politics?
  • End of silkroad?

4. What motivated the construction of a capital city? The reasons may have varied over
time so consider each capital separately.


Emperor wanted to be far way from Asuka飛鳥 because there were old aristocrats who are Yamato clans. Emperor wanted to hold his own power to control the country.

→Source in Japanese.平城京に遷都されたのは、なぜか? 平城京から遷都されたのは、なぜか?


First, Heijo was somewhat less an 'immutable' capital than we are accustomed to think, but still retained some characteristics of a court site that had to compete with other candidates in the capital district. A second, corollary point is that the emperor and the court were not confined to a single capital city, as they would become in the Heian period.

' ... the monks' immense political success more than anything else contributed to the declining prestige of Buddhism and forced the Nara bureaucrats to transfer the capital site.

 Kammu himself in 788, that the new capital district was 'convenient by water and by land'

 an important consideration in both the prosecution of the frontier wars in the northeast, and the pursuit of communications with the southwest and with the continent.

The revulsion against Dokyo, and the reaction against Nara Buddhist institutions may be part of the reason for the move of the capital. But surely there are other reasons to explain the uprooting of an urban complex approximating 200,000 souls in population-about 3% to 4% of the total population at the time and to justify the vast expense of replacing the hundreds of official buildings and thousands of official domiciles that were to be abandoned.


【復習】ASNS2631 Week2 Lecture【Review】

Before starting the review for this subject I'd like to mention about tutorial discussion for tomorrow.

These are the question for tomorrow.

Tutorial discussion: 

  1. What is the relationship between Shintō and the imperial family? 
  2. What are the historical and cultural significance of Kojiki and Nihonshoki? What function did these texts serve?
  3. What impact did continental civilization (from China and Korea) have on the formation of a centralized Japanese polity? Give specific examples. 
  4. Reading Shōtoku’s “constitution” carefully, attempt to distill its essential message. What appears to have been his primary objective? Is the word “constitution” appropriate? 

These question are related to what we have done today in lecture.
However, today's topic was

Establishment of Early Polity (Making Japan)

-Lecture on the early state, the emperor system and religion

From archipelago to nation. 19th century Hokkaido and Okinawa unified to Japan.
Until the Japan unified as Japan there were many competing clans(氏uji) and king.


In the early stage of Japan Uji is genealogically in the same line, same group, and the group is called 氏族shizoku. Each of the house used Uji as unit and they combined as a local political group. After all when the Yamato Kingdom had established Uji become the supporting group of Yamato. The Uji is the unit of the governing classes.

Yamato clan traditions

  • Sun is the worship of primitive religion
  • Yamato's family shrine at Ise(伊勢神宮)

6th century - Adaptation of continental things -> Writing -> Transformation of information -> tool to unify Japan

Kojiki and Nihonshoki

Kojiki and Nihonshoki are the one of earliest historical textual in Japan.
Kojiki was written in 712.
Nihonshoki was written in 720.

Textualisation = proliferation

By using these books Yamato clans spread their morality to conquer Japan.

Origin of Shitonism神道

Shitoism set emperor as highest.

Shintoism was not a codified define religion until 19th century

There are shrine at Ise as a family shrine for emperor
Each 20 years Ise shrine rebuild and it's called 式年遷宮shikinen sengu。

The reason for the shikinen senguu is to keep the shrine new and remind people the importance of Shitoism

The difference between western and eastern religion

Western is orthodoxy which is important to believe the god.
Eastern is orthopraxy  which is important to do some actions for god.

The introduction of Buddhism

Paikche(552) introduced Buddhism to Japan

Now this, bhikkhus, is the noble truth of suffering: birth is suffering, aging is suffering, illness is suffering, death is suffering; union with what is displeasing is suffering; separation from what is pleasing is suffering; not to get what one wants is suffering; in brief, the five aggregates subject to clinging are suffering.
Now this, bhikkhus, is the noble truth of the origin of suffering: it is this craving which leads to re-becoming, accompanied by delight and lust, seeking delight here and there; that is, craving for sensual pleasures, craving for becoming, craving for disbecoming.
Now this, bhikkhus, is the noble truth of the cessation of suffering: it is the remainderless fading away and cessation of that same craving, the giving up and relinquishing of it, freedom from it, non-reliance on it.
Now this, bhikkhus, is the noble truth of the way leading to the cessation of suffering: it is this noble eightfold path; that is, right view, right intention, right speech, right action, right livelihood, right effort, right mindfulness, right concentration.


As you know Buddhism is created in India. From India to Japan there have been many things(local philosophy, architecture, ect, ) 

The path way where Buddhism came from

Early Buddhism and the state

Buddhism had spread from aristocrats to people.
They held ceremony of Buddhism.

大化の改新taika no kaishin

These two was used as centralization of Japan.

Public Authority(公的認可) is the key word for entire semester.
The opposite word is private power.

Get bit lazy in the last part but however I've included everything I've learned today  


【復習】CHNS2601 Week1 Turorial【Review】

First we've learned  comparative sentence with 比 today.
There are 3 patterns using 比.

  1. A + 比 + B + Adj
  2. A + 比 + B + Adj + 一点儿/得多/多了
  3. A + 比 + B + 更/还 + Adj

I am taller than my girlfriend.

Today is much hotter than yesterday.

Today was hot. Tomorrow is even hotter than yesterday.

When 了 occurs at the ends of a sentence, it usually indicates a change of status or the realization of the new situation.


It is snowing now.

My girlfriend is not angry anymore.

会 indicates an anticipated event or action. It is modal verb.


It could rain tomorrow. (Uncertain)

It going to be rain tomorrow. (Certain)

It is must not going to be rain tomorrow. (Certain) 

I am able to use chopsticks now.

Adj + 一点儿

The expression (一)点儿 can be placed after an adjective to indicate slight qualification.


a bit cold

a bit quick

a bit tall

一点儿 does not precede the adjective. The following phrases are incorrect.





In the class we also learned 好一点儿。

好 < 好一点儿 < 更好 < 最好
Good < little bit better < better < best

好一点儿 goes between 好 and 更好。


Not only,,,but also,,,


My girlfriend not only able to speak English but also be able to speak Chinese.

I usually not only review vocabulary and grammar but also sometimes prepare for vocab and grammar. 

【復習】ASNS2632 Week1 Lecture【Review】

Writing from university so there's no Japanese.

The first lesson of ASNS2632(The Pre  modern social history of Japan) has started.

Major topics start off from 16th century which is pre modern era lead by Tokugawa. In other word, it was called pre Tokugawa Japan.

During 16th century, it was the first time that West(Portuguese) came to Japan with gun and cross. Most of them are  missionaries, traders, and soldiers.

Not only the gun and cross, but also they have taught modern technologies such as castle building, western products, etc.

They were significant factor for Japanese that they reconsolidate Japan as Tenka.

Following the history there were three conquerors in Japan.
Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and Tokugawa Ieyasu.

Oda Nobunaga

Oda Nobunaga had made the basic Tenka which means he almost conquer Japan but he betrayed by his subordinate Akechi Mituhide.

However, he have done

  • Military unification
  • Buddhist suppression
  • Military technology(Ex. Used gun in battle of Nagashino)

The reasons why he could done those stuffs are

  • Authorized by emperor
  • Strong military
  • Controlled economy

Toyotomi Hedeyoshi

Hedeyoshi has become lord of Japan after Nobunaga died because he eliminated Akechi Mitsuhide speedy and take over Nobunaga's son who was just 5 years old.

However after he taken the real power he have done and tried,

  • Military unifier
  • Social reform
  • Become world conquer

There are many things that he have done for social reform

Social reform

  • wide range of economic reform
  • survey land
  • Sword hunt
  • Centralized Daimyo

Tokugawa Ieyasu

He might be the longest conquer of Japan in the history. After Hedeyoshi have died Hedeyoshi asked him to become next conquer. There was a conflict between Ishida mitsunari and Tokugawa Ieyasu that who become the next lord but Ishida was not popular because he did not join the Korean war.

However, he have done

  • Tax and currency reform
  • Support Christian
  • Become Shogun(authorized by emperor)

Not only because of above but there was long peace which is created by Tokugawa.
This is called Tokugawa pax.

Tokugawa pax(1603-1868)

One of the feature which support this pax was Shinokosho(士農工商)


As you can see from this figure Warrior is the top ranked people.
They are only 6% of the population in Japan at that time.
Also they are privileged class. The reason why they were privileged is that I guess they had power to protect their land for others and instead of that other class pay the tax to them. However, still need further more research for this.


The second top ranked in the figure. 
84% of the population in Japan.
As the professor said, it's might not accurate to call them peasantry. Because, it's hard to jumble together that some of peasant doesn't have any power and just rent the land from land owner and some of peasant lend the land. The peasant who lend the land and had massive power at surrounded land called Gounou(豪農).
However, during the era, producer have much more power than others. The reason why they are ranked in second of the class is that farm produce is much more reliable than any other things even the money. Especially rice crop is very important for Japanese and it's still cropping in Japan.


Artisan is people who makes something which was necessary for people's life.
They are producer like same as peasantry so they ranked in third.
One of feature of artisan is most of artisan wanted to become Oyakata(親方) and they first become discipline of Oyakata. The detail is written here in Japanese.


Merchant think as exploiters because they didn't produce anything but they become rich by trading. Instead of that they were poor in society.


2.5% of the population.
They are untouchables because of their occupation. Untouchables usually do the job which people don't want to do such as funeral, cleaning, killing, washing dead body. Because of these jobs most of people didn't want to communicate with them. As I think they are discriminated.

One of the interesting point is they are outcast in the society at that time but might still outcast these days. There are also difference between Japan and Australia that how to treat about untouchable. In this figure untouchables written in tiny word but when I had a class yesterday professor wrote untouchables in part of class. It might be going far away but I think that Japanese don't want to write about untouchables so much. In fact, talking about untouchables is still taboo in Japan.  

Baku-Han system

Baku-han system is the system to conquer Daimyo by Bakufu or Shogun.

There are several type of daimyo at this time.

  • Fudai or hereditary house
  • Shinpan or collateral
  • Tozama or outer-lords

This system was quite successful to keep the peace in Japan but also because of this system Bakufu might fall down. In the end of edo period the warrior was unnecessary and especially outer lords  was in low status. They had discontent of their treatment.

Later on they start anti-Bakufu movement but this will be another story.

However, this is it for yesterday class.It's quite a lot so I'm afraid about this subject but also it's quite interesting to do this. well, see you next time



【復習】CHNS2601 Week1 Lecture【Review】


Review for Chinese. Intermediate level.

Are you in this class?

I cannot read and write


 ,,,,This was it for today.

We also done speaking exercise but cannot write here so this is it

【復習】ASNS2631 Week1 Lecture【Review】


Reviewing Asian studies in Sydney university for sharing information with class mates.

The main theme of ASNS2631 is exploring Origin of Japanese traditions.
During the class, lecturer following up from 5th century to 18th century.

Below are the list of each themes of ASNS2631.


  • The emperor and political legitimacy
  • Shinto myth
  • Political power of Buddhism
  • Women as literary pioneer
  • Samurai and warrior rule
  • Zen and medieval religion
  • 'Japanese style' aesthetics
  • Creation of 'tradition' in the modern era


The lecturer's method to research about Japan is based on material.
Furthermore, material culture is the physical evidence of a culture in the objects and architecture they make, or have made.

As he said Kyoto is primary resources which is useful for material culture.


Prehistory 50K BCE-550
Early civilization
Ancient period(600-794)
Dawn of civilisation
China and Korea made it possible Japan to become Japan.
Ex.Growth of literacy, building, culture, etc.
Heian period(794-1150)
Medieval period(1150-1600)
Culture developed enormously
Ex.Zen,Tea,Zen art, Literacy, ect.
Edo period(1600-1868)
Tokugawa hegemony
Early modern period(1868-1945)
Reverse emperor and he moved Tokyo(東京) which is meant east(東) of imperial capital(京)
Contemporary Japan(1945-today)
From Bust to Boost economy

This is it for today class.
Hopefully I can get better grade.